Visa Policy as Migration Channel - EU synthesis (EMN)
This Synthesis Report summarises the main findings of the National Reports for the EMN Study on Visa Policy as Migration Channel undertaken by EMN National Contact Points from 21 Member States.
The overall purpose of this study was to analyse the possible nexus between visa policy and migration management, examining the effects of visa policy on the management of migration, both in terms of facilitating legal migration and preventing irregular migration. The study covers the period from 2004 up to 2011 with statistics provided up to the end of 2010.
This EMN Study has demonstrated that, in the majority of Member States, in relation to national type “D” visas, a strong nexus exists between visa and migration policy, with practices not only serving to manage migration, in terms of controlling and facilitating entry and admission to the EU territory, but also to promote legal migration and prevent irregular migration. Only a few Member States (Austria, Finland, Sweden) have kept the visa and migration policy areas strictly separate, with visas reserved for short-term travel (e.g. for tourism, business visits) and residence permits for migration for study, employment or family reunification purposes.
The Study has also provided insights into the factors that affect the level of success with which Member States’ national visa policy facilitates legal migration and prevents irregular migration.
The Study has also indicated the impact that EU acquis has had on national visa policy in the Member States. For EU-10 Member States in particular, they found that on accession to the Schengen Area, the possibilities of shaping an independent national visa policy were reduced substantially.
the EMN synthesis rapport and the national reports can be downloaded here