Determining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries (EMN Inform)
This EMN Inform summarises the main findings of the EMN Study "Determining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries".
This EMN Inform summarises the main findings of the EMN study “Determining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries".
The inform provides information on the role of labour migration as a channel to overcome labour shortages in the different Member States; the variety of instruments used to identify and monitor labour shortages at EU and national level; and the extent to which these instruments are used in designing labour migration policy at national level.
Inform: some findings
- Most Member States view migration as part of a wider strategy to address labour shortages, but they differ in the relative importance that they give to labour migration in comparison to other measures.
- Two main approaches have been identified: a supply-centred ‘human capital’ approach, where admission frameworks are adjusted in order to attract migrants with characteristics that will place them in a favourable position for labour market insertion; and a demand-centred approach, that involves granting accelerated or simplified admission to migrants seeking employment in previously identified shortage occupations. In practice, the two models often interact.
- In countries where the human capital model has been adopted, facilitating highly-skilled labour migration is not seen as a tool for addressing labour shortages but rather as an instrument for encouraging innovation and the move toward a ‘knowledge economy’.
- In line with the demand driven model, Member States have adopted a variety of policy measures to adjust/modify their labour migration policies in light of labour market shortages, including exemptions from labour market tests or reduced minimum income threshold requirements.
- Identifying labour market shortages is a practice that is common to the vast majority of Member States and a wide range of methodologies are used, including taking stock of the number of unfilled vacancies, surveys, sector analysis and qualitative studies.
- Twenty-one Member States produce shortage occupation lists. They make different uses of these shortage lists (e.g. explicit instrument for determining the admission of third countries workers; used for some specific aspects of the migration policy…).
- Most Member States monitor labour migration in general; however, only a few monitor the impact of migration on shortage occupations, and some do so only to a limited extent or on an ad-hoc basis.
Please find additional information in the attached Inform.